Search Options

Boolean Operators

Boolean operators -- AND, OR and NOT -- are used to establish relationships between key words and keyword phrases. These operators can be used to expand or narrow a search and must be typed in ALL CAPS.

Note: The AND operator is implied between each key word or phrase in a query that does not contain Boolean operators. See Natural Language Search.


Truncation is a shortcut used to include alternate word endings in your query. This is a quick and easy way to include plurals, tense variations and alternate spellings.

To use Truncation, type an asterisk (*) after the root of your key word. For example, the query farm* returns articles that contain the words farm, farmed, farmer, farmers, farming, farmland, farmhouse, farms, etc.

Phrase Search

Phrase Search allows searching of article text for keyword phrases. The phrase must be enclosed in quotation marks to ensure that the entire phrase is searched for in its entirety, rather than the individual words in the phrase.

Entering the query "San Francisco" only returns articles that contain the phrase San Francisco, rather than articles that may include either word separately such as San Antonio, San Andreas Fault, Anthony Francisco Giacossa, etc.